The machine allows the user to train under Earth's gravity multiplied by a certain number.
The first machine is used to help Goku train in his spaceship for the battle on Planet Namek, and can go anywhere between 1 and 100 times Earth's gravity. The machine goes haywire at one point while Goku is training under 50 times Earth's gravity, causing it to jump up to 100 times Earth's gravity by itself, forcing Goku to master it to the point where he does not even feel it. This remarkable coincidence helps Goku greatly while battling the Ginyu Force. It, along with the ship, are destroyed when Namek explodes.
In the Trunks Saga, an upgraded version of the machine is created to help train Vegeta. According to the Daizenshuu, this more powerful version can go up to 300 times Earth's gravity. It is destroyed in the same Saga, during training. However, it is subsequently rebuilt and Vegeta later increases the forces to over 400 times Earth's gravity.
During his battle with Pui Pui, Vegeta reveals that he used a third Gravity Machine to train under even higher gravity (in Dragon Ball Z: Buu's Fury, it is said that he trained under exactly 450 times Earth's gravity) and states that Pui Pui is foolish to think that his home planet of Zoon, which had 10 times gravity, could help him win, however Vegeta had trained under 500 times normal gravity.
In Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods and the God of Destruction Beerus Saga, Vegeta uses the Gravity Machine for training. Vegeta trains under 150 times gravity normally. In Dragon Ball Super, Vegeta gets interrupted by a staff member of Capsule Corporation and gives him a call from Bulma to go to her birthday party though it is strongly implied the gravity was turned off before she entered the chamber as a safety measure installed by Bulma or her father to protect Capsule Corp. employees and members of the Brief family unaccustomed to high gravity training.
In the anime during the Universe 6 Saga, Vegeta notes the super-heavy outfits provided to him and Goku by Whis were so heavy that the strain it caused him was even greater than the intense Gravity produced by Bulma's latest Gravity Chamber, indicting that she is responsible for developing the Gravity Chamber used by Vegeta in Dragon Ball Super.
Vegeta is also shown using the room to train during the "Future" Trunks Saga and briefly stands in front of the door to the chamber while swearing he will never forgive Goku Black for murdering his wife's future counterpart.
Video Game Appearances
Goku uses the Gravity Machine inside his spaceship to train during his journey to Namek in Dragon Ball Z II: Gekishin Freeza, Dragon Ball Z: Super Saiya Densetsu, and Dragon Ball Z: Goku Gekitōden. He must train under 20, 50, and 100 times Earth's gravity in Gekishin Freeza and under 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 times Earth's gravity in Legend of the Super Saiyan.
The Gravity Chamber appears as a training room in Super Dragon Ball Z.
It also appears as a Support Card in Dragon Ball Z: Legendary Super Warriors, where it can be used to reduce an opponent's speed.
"The other day I went into Vegeta's training room on accident. I was totally squished by all the gravity and came out looking like a pancake! Yikes!"
— Bentora in Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2
In Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2 while investigating the Capsule Corp. time rift, Male Majin Time Patroller Bentora reveals to the Future Warrior that one day he accidentally went into Vegeta's gravity chamber by mistake and was totally squished by the intense gravity and came out looking like a pancake (it is implied he only survived due to his Body Manipulation, allowing him to endure his body being squished in such a manner). Bentora refers to the Gravity Chamber as Vegeta's training room.
Additionally, while working as an Instructor, Vegeta notes Conton City's gravity is weaker than Planet Vegeta's and wonders if he and other Saiyan instructors such require their students to train under ten times Conton City's gravity to compensate for them being accustomed to a place with such weak gravity though it is unclear whether this would involve artificial gravity generated by a Gravity Machine or simply having them train in an area with ten times the Earth's gravity.