"Why did you have to go and tell me that Bulma, you know that I'm highly allergic to danger."
Oolong (ウーロン) is a protagonist in the Dragon Ball manga and its anime adaptation Dragon Ball, making minor appearances in Dragon Ball Z and Dragon Ball GT as well. He is an anthropomorphic, shapeshifting pig who met Bulma and Goku while on their quest finding the Dragon Balls. After their adventure, he begins living at Capsule Corporation in West City. He plays a large role in the beginning of Dragon Ball, but by the end of Dragon Ball Z, he just shows up from time to time in the company of Master Roshi.
Concept and creation
Oolong is loosely based on the character Zhu Bajie from the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West. In Akira Toriyama's early manga Dragon Boy, the character Binyao was an early take on the character with the same personality and abilities, but with Puar's appearance.
In the first draft of Dragon Ball, Toriyama drew upon Zhu Bajie's traditional iconography and depicted Oolong as a large anthropomorphic pig bearing a war rake. The character's current form was developed in the third draft of the manga.
Appearance and personality
Oolong's normal form is of a humanoid pig, standing about three feet tall with pale pink skin. Initially, he wore a Korean War-era Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) uniform, although later he tended to dress in trousers, button-down shirts or vests, and suspenders.
The fact that Oolong is a pig wearing a Chinese Communist army uniform implies Akira Toriyama's message behind this character. Also, Oolong has a darker attitude in his early appearances. This whole concept is dropped with the beginning of the 21st World Martial Arts Tournament.
Like Master Roshi, he enjoys smoking cigars and is a pervert, but considerably less so. His favorite hobby is collecting women's underwear. Oolong is cynical and cowardly, and he is not hesitant to admit it; in fact, he is downright proud of his wimpish traits. Ironically Oolong is three years younger than Goku, Bulma points this out with the line "what kind of kid acts like a middle aged pervert" in the Japanese dub of episode 6. A running gag in both Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z is Oolong constantly being beaten up by Bulma during the World Martial Arts Tournaments due to her anxiety over the fighting (at one point, he tried to protect himself with a helmet). He is also there to provide comic relief and is often very sarcastic.
Oolong was born in Octagon Village, a village filled with other talking perverted pigs like himself. He was expelled from the kindergarten there for kidnapping a teacher. He later attended the Shapeshifting Academy where he always bullied Puar around for lunch money, but was eventually expelled for stealing the teacher's panties (papers in the dub). He was able to get a nice mansion next to Aru Village by ripping off lots of people.
Adventures with Bulma and Goku
Main article: Emperor Pilaf Saga
Oolong became known as a demon by the residents of Aru Village, since he kidnapped their young women to take care of his house. Unfortunately for him, the young women were quite comfortable being stolen and living in wealth. While trying to claim Pochawompa as his next girl (which he actually planned to be the one he marries), he is stopped by Goku who defeats him and makes him release the girls he previously kidnapped.
Bulma decides that he might be useful on her Dragon Ball quest and persuades him to join their expedition. While heading out with them, Oolong disagrees with the whole idea of going. When he finds out that they are heading to Fire Mountain, Oolong tries to ditch them by transforming into a fish, but he fails as he is captured again. Bulma gives him a "vitamin" that causes him to have to go to the bathroom anytime someone whistles "Piggy!" which Bulma uses to make him obey her and not try to leave. Since Bulma loses her Capsule case in a river, the gang is forced to walk the Diablo Desert where Oolong meets up with Puar, a former classmate of which he bullied, teamed up with a desert bandit named Yamcha.
After Yamcha and Puar flee their fight against Goku, Oolong provided the gang with his House-Wagon for the night. That night Oolong learns from Goku about their quest for the Dragon Balls and that they have the power to grant any wish. After giving Goku and Bulma juice that puts them to sleep, he is planning to steal the Dragon Balls and sneaks up to Bulma's room during the night. Meanwhile, Puar, disguised as Goku, goes upstairs to Oolong. Not wanting Goku to snitch at Bulma that he was upstairs in the bedroom, Oolong takes the form of Bulma and is led outside by the false Goku. After Oolong's five minutes are up, he transforms back to his original form causing Puar to transform in shock that the real Bulma is still in the House-Wagon with Yamcha. The next morning Oolong begins to drive the House-Wagon towards Fire Mountain but is shot down by Yamcha. Oolong is given a new car by Yamcha after Goku defeats him.
Two days later, Oolong and the rest of the gang arrive at Fire Mountain. While not wanting to go near the mountain due to the risk of possibly encountering the Ox-King, Bulma still forces him to go. Oolong and Bulma end up meeting the Ox-King while Goku is away trying to get in the castle. Oolong wet his pants while he appears and is going to be killed but then finds out that they are friends with Gohan's grandson Goku and spares them. Oolong waits at Fire Mountain with Bulma and the Ox-King so Goku and the Ox-King's daughter Chi-Chi can retrieve his former teacher Master Roshi to help put out the Flames on his castle. Master Roshi puts the flames out but for the price of allowing him to touch Bulma's breasts which Bulma forces Oolong to transform into her so Roshi can touch them. Oolong takes it to far by completely exposing Bulma's breasts and allowing Roshi to put his face between them, which makes Bulma angry despite it not really being her.
While heading to the next location of a Dragon Ball, they stop at Monster Carrot's Village to refill on gas but Goku ends up messing with the Rabbit Mob causing their leader Monster Carrot to turn Bulma into a Carrot, but Oolong drives away and avoids the conflict until it is all over. Five of the Dragon Balls that they gained on their quest are stolen by Shu when heading towards Pilaf's Castle. The gang is forced to team up with Yamcha and Puar who are following them from a distance for some time. When arriving at Pilaf's Castle, Goku's four star ball is stolen by having everyone trapped in a room and put to sleep with gas. Oolong and Puar are able to fly out of a hole made by Goku's Kamehameha so they can prevent Emperor Pilaf's plan to wish himself world domination.
Oolong ends up preventing the wish by quickly jumping in and telling Shenron that he wants a girl's pair of panties (in the English dub, he wished for "Comfort in a pair of underwear"). After the wish, Emperor Pilaf becomes angry and has Oolong and the others put into a cell that will fry them by morning. Oolong and the others are able to escape when Goku transforms into a Great Ape from looking at the Full Moon. Oolong helps Yamcha and Puar cut off Goku's tail after the destruction of Pilaf's Castle to revert him to his normal state. Once Goku wakes up, Oolong gives Goku his pants since Goku's clothes were torn off in his transformation. While saying goodbye to Goku, Oolong heads with Bulma, Yamcha and Puar to West City.
Attending the 21st World Martial Arts Tournament
Main article: Tournament Saga On the way to West City, the plane Oolong is riding with the rest of the gang crashes in the jungle, making everybody walk the rest of the way. When back at West City, he stays with Bulma, and Puar to watch Yamcha train and even keeps Bulma company when he leaves to train in the wild for the upcoming tournament. He attends the 21st World Martial Arts Tournament with his friends where he meets back up with Goku and meets Krillin as well. Since non competitors are not allowed to watch the Elimination Rounds, Bulma forces Oolong to let her use him as a stool so she can watch Yamcha fight. In the main tournament, he is seen in the crowd with Bulma and Puar cheering on Goku, Krillin, and Yamcha in their fights.
Red Ribbon conflict
Oolong is briefly seen in the Red Ribbon Army Saga. He is first seen heading with Yamcha and Puar for Dream Land, a newly built amusement park in town. When they meet Goku, Oolong and Puar are telling Yamcha about how bad Bulma is for him. Bulma pops out of Goku's shirt and yells at Yamcha for talking behind her back. At Dream Land, he and the group meet Hasky, who is disguised as a fortune teller.
Oolong appears at the 22nd World Tournament as a spectator to cheer on his friends. At the Tournament they learn of Master Roshi's rival Master Shen and his two students Tien Shinhan and Chiaotzu. Tien is set on beating Goku in the Tournament to avenge Master Shen's brother, Mercenary Tao. After the tournament, Tien and Chiaotzu become friends with the others. Later they find that Krillin is found murdered by a monstrous killer.
King Piccolo's reincarnation
Three years later, Oolong also is the only one to have deduced the true identity of the mysterious female fighter that Goku has to face in the preliminaries (even stating "See, I told you so" while every one of Goku's friends was shocked to learn her true identity).
At the end of the Piccolo Jr. Saga in the anime only (in episode "Dress in Flames"), Chi-Chi and Fortuneteller Baba end up in a village occupied by Oolong-esque pig people. Jasmine and Oonaan claim to know Oolong and think he is a big pervert, but their attempts to spy on Chi-Chi and Baba in the village's hot spring show that they are not any less perverted than he is.
Dragon Ball Z
Oolong's character dwindles to little importance, although in the anime and several movies, he appears quite often as a comic relief character. In Dragon Ball Z: The World's Strongest, soon after discovering the Dragon Balls have all gathered in one place, Oolong steals Bulma's Dragon Radar, and lures Gohan with him to the Tsumisumbri Mountains to verify their discovery and hopefully wish for another pair of panties.
Oolong goes camping with the others in Dragon Ball Z: The Tree of Might and Dragon Ball Z: Cooler's Revenge, and went with Gohan and Icarus when Gohan attacked Lord Slug's soldiers in Dragon Ball Z: Lord Slug.
Battle against the Saiyans
Five years later, he asks Shenron if he can kill the Saiyans instead of reviving Goku, but Shenron says he cannot do this. At Kame House, he watches the battle against the Saiyans from television, and later with Fortuneteller Baba's Crystal Ball. In a rare moment of compassion, he cries out when Puar faints, their rivalry long forgotten.
Journey to Namek and the space tyrant Frieza
Oolong, along with Puar and Dr. Brief, watch Goku in the Capsule Corporation spaceship head to Namek to help his friends collect the Dragon Balls to revive their fallen friends. They become concerned for Goku when his ship malfunctions in a storm, but cheer when Goku is fine.
Later, Oolong, Puar, Master Roshi, Yajirobe and Chi-Chi try to go to Namek with Dr. Brief's ship, but to Oolong's delight, their ship breaks down before takeoff.
Black Water Mist
The mysterious youth
The Androids and Cell
Three years later, Oolong stays at the Kame House with the others, waiting from news of their friends. When the others bring a sick Goku to Kame House to hide from the androids, he watches on TV as a monster named Cell attacks people in Gingertown. Later, Kame House is flooded with water due to the final transformation on Cell. He then, along with Master Roshi, attended Capsule Corps. to locate where Cell's going to broadcast his Cell Games. They accidentally find Cell while Roshi and he are watching a female exercise channel, with Cell rising through the floor.
Death and revival
Seven years later, Goku is allowed to come back to earth for one day. Oolong is at the 25th World Martial Arts Tournament supporting his friends and later goes with Bulma and the others look for the Dragon Balls. Oolong must later take refuge from Majin Buu on Kami's lookout. A day later, he is turned into chocolate and eaten by Super Buu. Later during the battle between Goku and Kid Buu his life is later restored with everyone else on the planet by a wish by Porunga and later gives his powers to Goku's Spirit Bomb to defeat Kid Buu. He later appears at Bulma's house for a party. Ten years later at the end of the series, Oolong is at the 28th World Martial Arts Tournament, once again supporting his friends.
Dragon Ball Super
Battle of Gods Saga
Main article: Battle of Gods Saga Oolong joins Bulma for her birthday party. He along with Master Roshi were lustfully scouring women on the beach, but Chi-Chi stops them for setting a bad example for the kids.
Dragon Ball GT
Unlike many of the characters, he does not age that much. However, he does age a little in Dragon Ball GT. Years later, In the Baby Saga, when the Earth is about to explode, he moves with everyone else to the new Tuffle Planet, and later reappears at the Capsule Corporation in a party. Oolong's wish for panties leads to the creation of Oceanus Shenron (which, due to the nature of the wish, ironically creates the same kind of Shadow Dragon as most of her brothers). Oolong is last seen in the final flashbacks in the final episode of the Dragon Ball anime.
Oolong appears in almost every Dragon Ball film made. He appears in:
- Dragon Ball: Curse of the Blood Rubies
- Dragon Ball: Sleeping Princess in Devil's Castle
- Dragon Ball: Mystical Adventure
- Dragon Ball: The Path to Power
- Dragon Ball Z: The World's Strongest
- Dragon Ball Z: The Tree of Might
- Dragon Ball Z: Lord Slug
- Dragon Ball Z: Cooler's Revenge
- Dragon Ball Z: The Return of Cooler
- Dragon Ball Z: Super Android 13!
- Dragon Ball Z: Broly - The Legendary Super Saiyan
- Dragon Ball Z: Bojack Unbound
- Dragon Ball Z: Wrath of the Dragon
- Dragon Ball: Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!!
- Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods
- Cooler's Revenge
Oolong participated in a camping trip with Krillin, Gohan, Icarus, and Goku. However, their camping trip ended up short lived due to an ambush conducted by Cooler's Armored Squadron. Oolong intended to retreat, although Goku's arrival made this unnecessary. He later stayed behind and had Icarus lick Krillin to have him regain consciousness. They eventually tried to search for Goku and Gohan while at the same time evading the Armored Squadron, eventually finding them in a collapsed cave. Oolong later watched over Goku (who had been gravely wounded from an attack by Cooler that was meant for Gohan), while Gohan and Icarus went to retrieve Senzu Beans for Goku, with Gohan narrowly succeeding due to a spare bean Yajirobe supplied Gohan with. Salza, when his Scouter detected Goku's power increase, initially guessed in shock that Oolong may be the source of the increased power level. Oolong later panicked when Cooler attempted to telekinetically destroy the planet. He later rendezvoused with the group, also witnessing Salza being killed by Piccolo after a failed attempt at ambushing them.
- Super Android 13!
Oolong in the beginning of the film attempted to attend a swimsuit model show with Master Roshi, Krillin, and Future Trunks (the latter being reluctant). However, the event was running late, eventually resorting to peeking inside the dressing rooms. They eventually regrouped with the Son family at the city, revealing that they had mixed up the dates of the swimsuit show. After an attempt at Goku's life that nearly resulted in several deaths by Androids 14 and 15, Oolong, alongside all but Future Trunks, Gohan, and Krillin (the latter two insisting they go to defend Goku and being forced to go by Chi-Chi, respectively), were evacuated to a safe area. He later appears in the ending, where Oolong paid a visit to the Z Fighters at the hospital, also making a smart remark at Krillin's expense, resulting in Krillin activating his earlier sustained injuries in an attempt to grab him in revenge.
- Broly - The Legendary Super Saiyan
Oolong participated in the harimani picnic at the park, but eventually (and unintentionally) accompanied Vegeta to New Planet Vegeta (as they were trying to stop Master Roshi from boarding, who was himself trying to stop Vegeta from going). He then spent time trying to take care of a hungover Master Roshi (ill from consuming too much tuna sandwiches in the English dub), also whacking him with a mallet to supply him with "medicine." Oolong also expressed disgust with Vegeta's hotheadedness when he rushed with Broly to confront the Legendary Super Saiyan at Planet Totokama (unaware at the time that Broly is the Legendary Super Saiyan in question). He later participated with Roshi and a newly arrived Goku (who had himself been searching for the Legendary Super Saiyan under King Kai's command) in a feast prepared by Paragus, Broly's father, and also threatened to eat the entire banquet if Goku didn't hurry up and eat. Oolong later attempted to warn an irate Master Roshi that Paragus is not going to let him or the other Z Fighters leave, but Roshi ignored him, and proceeded to literally drag Oolong by the ears to Paragus to voice his complaints as Paragus was trying to restrain his son from attacking Goku. He later ended up having his feet tickled by Roshi while asleep (the latter obviously dreaming that he had encountered a beautiful lady), also briefly waking up in agony after his foot was bitten by Roshi just as Broly, in his restrained Super Saiyan form, attacked Goku, although otherwise sleeping through the fight. He and Roshi later aided Gohan, Future Trunks, and Krillin in bringing the Shamoan Slaves over to the area Paragus, Vegeta, Goku, and Broly were at to expose to Vegeta Paragus's deception, also witnessing Broly's transformation into the Legendary Super Saiyan. He and the other non-Saiyan Z Fighters attempted to evacuate the Shamoans, but ended up tripping, with Oolong also accidentally running on Krillin's head in an attempt to escape Broly (while also believing that Broly caught him in a tractor beam). He later booted off Roshi after he was unable to aid the remaining Z Fighters in his Max Form due to his drunken state, and evacuated New Planet Vegeta before Comet Camori collided with it via a ship Piccolo had supplied them with.
- Battle of Gods
Oolong was at Bulma's birthday party when Beerus visited Earth. When Beerus is preparing to destroy the Earth, he gives the Earthlings one last chance to avoid their planet's destruction by challenging Oolong to a game of rock-paper-scissors. Yamcha believes that Beerus' motive for choosing Oolong is that he assumes that Oolong has hooves instead of hands, meaning he can only play scissors. Thinking that this means that Beerus will play rock, they tell Oolong to play paper. In the end, however, their strategy fails as Beerus is able to hear the entire plan with is big ears.
After the conclusion of Goku's battle with Beerus, Oolong starts attacking Goku upon realizing that he had been watching the Z Fighter's struggle with the God of Destruction for an extended period of time without interfering.
N-cha! Love Comes From Penguin Village
Oolong makes a minor appearance in the movie Dr. Slump and Arale-chan: N-cha! Love Comes From Penguin Village where he is in a crowd with Launch, Mai, Shu, Emperor Pilaf, King Nikochan and his servant, Pink and Cobalt Blue.
Dragon Ball SD
Techniques and special abilities
- Shapeshifting – Although he was expelled from the Shapeshifting Academy for stealing the teacher's panties and lacks the ability to change his form for more than five minutes at a time without a break. After a full five minutes have passed, Oolong's magic requires an additional minute to allow his magic to replenish so that he may transform again (the other shapeshifter in Dragon Ball, Puar, completed the training and does not have this limitation). With his shapeshifting, Oolong can look like anything at all. Oolong's transformations include an ogre, a handsome Frenchman, a bull, a ramen-carrying robot, a bat, a rocket, a paddle, a fish, a motorcycle, a ladder, Bulma herself, and even some panties. However, even if he increases in size, he cannot alter his physical strength: for example he can become a bike but cannot function like one because most humans are too heavy for him to carry.
Video game appearances
Oolong appears as a boss in early Dragon Ball video games, such as Dragon Ball: Shenron no Nazo, Dragon Ball Z Gaiden: Shin Saiyajin Zetsumetsu Keikaku - Chikyū-Hen, and Dragon Ball Z: Super Gokuden: Totsugeki-Hen. He is a boss and a playable fighter in Dragon Ball: Advanced Adventure (transformed into a bat, but changes into a rocket for his specials). Oolong also appears in Dragon Ball: Dragon Daihikyou, Dragon Ball: Daimaō Fukkatsu, Dragon Ball 3: Gokuden (and its remake), Dragon Ball Z: Kyōshū! Saiyan, Dragon Ball Z: Legend of the Super Saiyan, the Legacy of Goku series, Dragon Ball Online, and Dragon Ball RPG: Shōnen-hen.
In Dragon Ball: Origins, Oolong plays mostly the same role as he did in the Pilaf Saga, except that the player must navigate his/her way through Oolong's maze-like mansion to battle him. He reappears in Dragon Ball: Origins 2, and in the bonus level 1-4, he ends up transforming into Colonel Silver and fighting against Bulma alongside the real Colonel Silver. In Dragon Ball: Revenge of King Piccolo, full 3D models of Oolong's Bull and Robot forms can be purchased at Fortuneteller Baba's shop. They can be observed in the Character Gallery. Those two forms appear in the game as enemies.
In Dragon Ball Z: Harukanaru Densetsu, Oolong is a support character with Puar. In Dragon Ball Z: Attack of the Saiyans, Oolong is at Kame House and sells items he found, notably the Oolong's Nose capsule which tells the number of treasures not found yet in each area. Oolong and Puar are also assist characters in Dragon Ball Z: Bakuretsu Impact.
Oolong usually appears as nothing more than a one-line character in cutscenes for most Dragon Ball Z fighting games, such as Dragon Ball Z 2: Super Battle, Dragon Ball Z: Ultimate Battle 22, Dragon Ball Z: Budokai 3 and Super Dragon Ball Z. In Ultimate Battle 22, if two Kid Gokus fight each other, the one who loses the match transforms into Oolong after he falls, revealing him to have been an impostor. In Dragon Ball Z: Budokai, when all the seven Dragon Balls are gathered, Oolong appears and summons Shenron, giving the player a choice of 3 Breakthrough capsules. In Dragon Ball Z: Budokai Tenkaichi 3, Oolong hides himself in a window in Launch's Skill Shop at Kame House. While he himself does not appear in Dragon Ball Z: Shin Budokai, he is referenced and is implied to have stolen a wish if the player acquires all the Dragon Balls as Cooler.
Main article: Piggy (Pang Sam)
Oolong was a main character in two of the three live-action adaptions of the Dragon Ball series. In the 1990 Korean adaption named Dragon Ball: Ssawora Son Goku, Igyeora Son Goku, Oolong played the same role he did in the original series and was played by Jang Min-Seok who wore a giant mask of Oolong's head.
- Japanese dub: Naoki Tatsuta
- Harmony Gold dub: Dave Mallow (credited as Colin Philips), Barry Stigler (transformed)
- Ocean dub: Alec Willows (DB, DBZ Seasons 1-2, Movie 2-3), Scott McNeil (Movie 3 (Pioneer)), Richard Newman (DBZ Seasons 3 on)
- FUNimation dub: Mark Britten (DBZ original seasons 1-2), Brad Jackson (most media), Bryan Massey (DBZ Kai and Movie 1)
- Blue Water dub: Corby Proctor
- Italian dub: Riccardo Peroni, Renato Montanari (Jtv), Fabrizio Mazzotta (Dynamic Italia), Massimo Milazzo (Dragon Ball - Film)
- Brazilian Portuguese dub: Angélica Santos
- Portuguese dub: Ricardo Spínola
- Latin American dub: Ernesto Lezama (until mid-Frieza Saga and DBZ Kai), Arturo Mercado (remaining DBZ and DBGT, Battle of Gods)
- Catalan dub: Albert Diaz (episodes 1-26 DB); Miquel Bonet (follow episodes of DB, DBZ, DBGT, DBZ Kai)
- Like many Dragon Ball characters, Oolong is named after a food: in this case, Oolong tea.
- While many evil characters eventually reformed and joined the side of good, Oolong has the distinction of being the first.
- The handsome man Oolong transformed into bears a resemblance to Senbei's handsome form.
- In some of his first appearances, Oolong is shown wearing a Mao suit, made famous by Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong. This is possibly due to the fact that his character is based on a Chinese Legend. It could also be a reference to George Orwell's Animal Farm as the pigs in that novel were the ones who were in charge of the communist government on the farm.
- Oolong is the first to make a wish in the Dragon Ball manga (excluding wishes made but not seen). He was also the first to save the world by making a wish in time to stop Pilaf's evil plot.
- Oolong is the first to speculate that Goku is not an Earthling, raising the question of whether he is "some kinda space alien" after the destruction he causes as a Great Ape at Emperor Pilaf's palace.
- Oolong is likely based on Donbe from Akira Toriyama's previous series, Dr. Slump. They are both shapeshifting animals and do some perverted tricks.
- Zoonama's story is very similar to that of Oolong, as both terrorized villages and demanded the daughters of the townspeople.
- ↑ Daizenshuu 4, 1995
- ↑ http://www.kanzenshuu.com/translations/weekly-jump-1986-37-character-biography-data/ Weekly Shōnen Jump #37, August 1986
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Oolong profile, Daizenshuu 7, 1996
- ↑ Daizenshuu 7, 1996
- ↑ Dragon Ball episode 149, "Dress in Flames"
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Dragon Ball chapter 8, "One, Two, Yamcha-Cha!"
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Dragon Ball episode 5, "Yamcha the Desert Bandit"
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Dragon Ball chapter 6, "So Long, Oolong!"
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Dragon Ball episode 4, "Oolong the Terrible"
- ↑ Dragon Ball chapter 5, "Oo! Oo! Oolong!"
- ↑ Dragon Ball chapter 7, "Yamcha and Pu'ar"
- ↑ Dragon Ball chapter 9, "Dragon Balls in Danger"
- ↑ Dragon Ball chapter 10, "Onward to Fry-Pan..."
- ↑ Dragon Ball episode 6, "Keep an Eye on the Dragon Balls"
- ↑ Dragon Ball episode 14, "Goku's Rival"
- ↑ Dragon Ball chapter 12, "Separate Ways"