"How... dare you!? That's my BULMA!!!"
Upon being overcome by an extreme rage, the user powers up into a Super Saiyan 2, but gains a power up even greater than Super Saiyan 3, temporarily blanking out their eyes. In this state, both his skin and body turns with a slight pink tone and blue bolts surround him.
After Beerus the Destroyer slapped Bulma and knocks her down, Vegeta becomes fully enraged and, after being transformed into a Super Saiyan 2, he undergoes a furious mutation. Vegeta powers up so much that he was able to briefly hold his own against Beerus. In the anime this power up is strong enough that Beerus says he had to use 10% of his power and that fighting him was even more fun than fighting Super Saiyan 3 Goku at King Kai's Planet. In the movie version, Roshi exclaims in amazement that Vegeta's power has finally surpassed that of Goku's.
In the anime, after the battle Vegeta begins training himself in order to further power up and surpass Goku and Beerus, however he finds out from Whis that in order to do so he will need to learn how to control his ki from Whis, and goes back to Beerus' Planet to train with him. In the manga, Vegeta retained the ability to power up his Super Saiyan 2 to a level above Super Saiyan 3.
This form is very similar to the Super Saiyan Anger state, as both are massive power ups to the Super Saiyan 2 form which temporarily blank out the users eyes and are achieved through rage, however the Super Saiyan Anger form involves utilization of the Super Saiyan Third Grade in its usage, while the Quake of Fury power up does not.
Quake of Fury is named in IC Carddass Dragon Ball, where it is used by Vegeta: Battle of Gods. While in the form Vegeta is named "Prince of Rage Vegeta".